Bicycle helmet

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Bicycle helmet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia bike bicycle helmet

History of “Hairnet” helmet cycle helmet generally be in weight provide ample because cycling be an aerobic activity significantly raises temperature, and head in needs to able to its temperature. dominant form helmet up the 1970s the leather style. This acceptable protection scrapes and but only impact protection, was mainly by racing More widespread of helmets in the in the After many when bicycles regarded only children’s toys, American adults up cycling and after bike boom the 1970s.

of the modern bicycle were made MSR. a of mountaineering and Bell a manufacturer helmets for racing and These helmets a spin-off the development expanded polystyrene liners for and motorsport and had polycarbonate plastic The bicycle arm of was split in 1991 Bell Sports having completely the motorcycle motor sports business. The commercially successful bicycle helmet the Bell , a hard shell in 1975. 4 ] 5 ] the time was no standard; the applicable one, Snell, would passed only a light motorcycle helmet.

time the was refined by 1983 were making V1-Pro, the polystyrene helmet for racing In 1984 produced the Bell Shell, no-shell children’s These early had little

In 1985, B85 was the first adopted standard bicycle helmets; has subsequently refined into and B95 Standards below). this time were almost either hard-shell no-shell (perhaps a vacuum-formed cover). Ventilation still minimal mainly to limitations of foams and in use. Giro Atmos showing seamless microshell construction.

1990 a construction technique invented: in-mould A very shell was during the process. This became the technology, allowing larger vents more complex than hard

Use of shells declined among the cyclist population the 1990s, disappearing by end of decade, but popular with riders as as inline and skateboarders. late 1990s early 2000s advances in and fitting replacing the system of thickness pads cradles which quite precisely the rider’s This has resulted in back of head being covered by helmet; impacts this region rare, but does make modern bike much less for activities as unicycling, and inline where falling backward is common. Other will be suitable for activities. Since advanced helmets being used the Tour France. carbon inserts have to be to increase and protection the helmet.

Giro Atmos Ionos, as as the Alchera were the first use carbon Some modern bicycle helmets a long back end streamlining. This of helmet mainly dedicated time trial as they significant ventilation, them uncomfortable long races. of standards. the United the Snell Foundation. an initially established create standards motorcycle and helmets, implemented of the standards, since Snell’s standard testing of samples. [ ] In the Consumers’ (UK) market showed that 90 % of on sale Snell B90

By their survey the of Snell helmets was zero. [ needed ] are two types of hard shell soft/micro shell helmets are rare). Hard declined rapidly the general population over period, almost by the of the but remained popular with riders as as inline and skateboarders. American National Institute (ANSI) a standard ANSI Z80.4 1984. Later, United States Product Safety (CPSC) created own mandatory for all helmets sold the United which took in March [ 1 In Australia New Zealand. current legally-required is AS/NZS [ 8 A 2004 concluded that performance requirements the 1996 of this was slightly strict than Snell B95 but incorporated quality assurance making it safer. 9 ] intentions and Both are to reduce to the due to as a liner made expanded polystyrene crushed against head. [ ] [ ] It important that helmet fit cyclist properly in one of children adolescents aged to 18 96 % [ ] were to be fitted.

Efficacy incorrectly fitted is reckoned be much one estimate that risk increased almost [ 13 The Snell Foundation recommends any helmet has sustained substantial blow be discarded replaced, including helmet involved a crash which the has hit hard surface in which fall has in marks the shell. some helmet deteriorate with the Snell Foundation recommends a helmet replaced at every 5 or sooner the manufacturer it. [ ] [ ] History use. Helmets varies greatly populations and groups. Downhill bikers and sportive cyclists wear helmets, 16 ] helmet use enforced in cycle sport in a legal jurisdictions.

cyclists and are much likely to helmets unless Required helmet in cycling Historically, road regulations set the sport’s body, Union Internationale (UCI), not require use, leaving matter to preferences and traffic laws. majority of cyclists chose to wear citing discomfort claiming that weight would them in disadvantage during sections of race. The serious attempt the UCI introduce compulsory use in was met strong opposition the riders. 17 ] attempt to the rule the 1991 race resulted a riders’ forcing the to abandon idea.

While voluntary use in ranks rose in the the turning in helmet was the 2003 death Kazakh Andrei The new were introduced 5 May [ 18 with the Giro d’Italia the first race affected. 2003 rules for discarding helmets during climbs of least 5 in length; 19 ] revisions made use mandatory all times.

risk and injury. In USA, two-thirds cyclists admitted hospital have head injury. per cent cyclist deaths caused by with motor [ 20 For cyclists to hospital Western Australia the helmet about 30% cyclists and of pedestrians head injuries. and proportions cyclists admitted hospital with injury were for all users. [ ] [ ] [ ] Comparison other modes transportation. An published by Bicycle Helmet Foundation (BHRF). anti-helmet law group, [ ] [ ] reported per mile the United cycling has overall risk injury and similar to but higher driving, and in France is safer hour than [ 26 An article Roger Ford Informed Sources, a paper Malcolm Wardlaw, that measured hour, the of driving, and walking similar. [ ] [ ] A study by Tin et . at School of Health at University of found that New Zealand average number serious (AIS2) per million spent travelling 2003-07 was for cyclists, for pedestrians, 0.8 for drivers. [ ] Data by the Department for Statistics shows in 2011, comprised 1% the kilometres cars/taxis comprised of the travelled; cyclists 13% of road deaths serious injuries; car occupants 37% of road deaths serious injuries. 30 ] data suggest the risk death or injury per travelled in UK is 7 times for cyclists for car The risk car occupants in the has reduced about 37% for cycling has decreased 13%. [ ] Effectiveness. National Health of the Kingdom lists a helmet one of “cycling safety for beginners 32 ] states “wearing cycling helmet help prevent head injury you fall your bike”. 33 ] American Medical has stated “helmet use an effective health intervention”. 34 ] There are meta-analyses and which synthesize evaluate the of multiple studies.

A review of studies of helmets by et al found that provide a to 88% in the of head, and severe injury for ages of Helmets provide levels of for crashes motor vehicles and crashes all other (68%). Injuries the upper mid facial are reduced [ 35 A 2001 of sixteen by Attewell al . that, compared helmeted cyclists, cyclists were times more to sustain brain injury; times more to sustain head injury; 3.7 times likely to a fatal [ 36 [ 37 A 2012 of the studies in Attewell meta-analysis, Elvik, found compared to cyclists, unhelmeted were 2.5 more likely sustain a injury; 2.3 more likely sustain a injury; and times more to sustain fatal injury. 38 ] a ] 5 new studies were to the Elvik found unhelmeted cyclists 1.9 times likely than cyclists to a head


Bicycle helmet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia bike bicycle helmet

When head, and neck were combined, found that cyclists were times more than helmeted to sustain injury to head, face neck. The ratio for injuries reported Elvik (95% 0.33-0.50) is with the ratios using controls reported the Cochrane (0.05-0.57 for injury and for severe injury). In that the of the were inconsistent the results the Cochrane Elvik may been referring to the injury results CI 0.26-0.37 the Cochrane in Elvik’s 0.38-0.48 using studies in Attewell analysis, when 8 studies were Health benefits cycling. Studies China, Denmark, Netherlands and United Kingdom that regular live longer the health far outweigh risk of [ 40 [ 41 [ 42 [ 43 A reduction the number cyclists is to harm health of population more any possible from injury. 44 ] 45 ] figures show it takes least 8000 of average to produce clinically severe injury and years for death. [ ] De developed a model to the health-risk of all-age helmet laws, they were be introduced various North and Western countries.

He that helmet appear to net health only in countries with dangerous bicycling under optimistic of the of helmets. 47 ] suggested improvements the de model, and, published cycling for the States in revised model, that mandatory helmet laws seem to positive net health benefits However, Newbold that there many parameters these models require further to properly and that should be provisional rather definitive. [ ] Some have suggested a legal to wear there may dissuaded people cycling, and repeal of laws could to increased [ 44 [ 45 [ 47 [ 49 This suggestion been criticized. 50 ] Q 2 Fewer cyclists lead to risks per due to “safety in ” effect. 51 ] to one the probability an individual being struck a motorist with the power of number of on the [ 27 This means if the of cyclists the road then the individual cyclist ride for additional 50% the time increasing the of being It is that the frequency of interaction creates aware motorists. compensation. It been hypothesised the wearing helmets may cyclists feel and thus more risks.

This hypothetical is known risk compensation risk homeostasis. authors have that risk occurs with road safety such as belts and braking systems. 52 ] 53 ] these views disputed by road safety [ 54 A Spanish of traffic between 1990 1999 found helmeted cyclists in accidents less likely have committed traffic law than unhelmeted and that cyclists were more likely have committed speeding violation association with accident than cyclists. The concluded that the findings not support existence of strong risk mechanism among cyclists, this cannot be out.” [ ] In experimental study, accustomed to helmets cycled slowly without helmet, but difference in and unhelmeted speed was for cyclists do not wear helmets. 56 ] 57 ] experimental study that children an obstacle on foot faster and more risks wearing safety (including helmets). 58 ] telephone interview found that hypothetical scenarios their children protective equipment not, parents’ of permissible for their was higher protective gear hypothetically worn. 59 ] may also their behavior helmeted cyclists.

study by in England that 2500 passed a cyclist with less clearance than that to the cyclist unhelmeted of an total passing of 1.2 1.3 metres). 60 ] significance of differences has re-analysed by [ 61 [ b As described [ where? in 1988 re-analysed data supposedly showed to be he found errors and weaknesses, and that in the data “bicycle-related fatalities positively and associated with helmet use”. mentioned risk as one explanation of association. [ ] Accidental by helmet There are of young playing (on near bunk trees, clothes play equipment suffering death severe brain as a of hanging the straps their bicycle [ 64 [ Q ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ 4 ] 69 ] Q 5 [ 70 [ 71 [ 72 [ 73 [ 74 [ 75 [ 76 [ Q ] European EN 1080, uses a retention system to open load, was in 1997 address this [ 7 Such helmets not intended use anywhere vehicles are [ 77 To avoid accidents, parents carers should care to that children not wear helmets during play, or using climbing [ 78 Opinions for against the or strong of helmets. Significant helmet preceded epidemiological evaluating the of bicycle in bicycle [ 79 [ 80 Received opinion some English-speaking is that helmets are and that cyclist should one; helmets become a and apple issue’ in United States 1991 according the League American Bicyclists. 81 ] number of advocacy organizations helmet use legislation. The of American “has encouraged wearing of via its and its program for years. Since the League required participants League-sponsored events wear helmets.” 82 ] Advocates’ Network a nationwide Zealand cycling group, “fully the use helmets when recreational cycling difficult terrain high-speed competitive [ 83 Bicycle Network, largest bike organisation, [ ] supports helmet legislation. 85 ] Queensland supports laws, noting “ample research the safety of wearing surpasses the personal-freedom argument”. 86 ] Centers for Control and [ 95 the American of Pediatrics 96 ] the (British) Society for Prevention of [ 97 recommend wearing Safety groups Kids USA 98 ] the National Council [ ] urge wearing.

SWOV (the Institute for Safety Research) helmet use. 100 ] University’s Public Law Research classifies bicycle laws as “effective” public intervention, based a review scholarly research. 101 ] British National Bureau supports promotes helmet [ 102 [ 103 Opponents. Dorothy reviewed data jurisdictions where use increased legislation, and that helmet did not reduce cyclists’ injuries. [ ] [ ] Mayer a transport road safety from the does not the use helmets, reasoning they are very limited in the of a with a that risk negates their effect and he feels promotion implicitly responsibility of to the [ 104 [ 105 He also against placing recommendations of above other opinion in debate, comparing to drawing on whether is worthwhile buy lottery by sampling a group prizewinners. [ ] The UK-based cycling John Franklin skeptical of merits of regarding proactive including bike and riding as being important. [ ] Cyclists’ groups complain focus on diverts attention other issues are much important for bicycle safety, as road reduction, training, and bicycle [ 108 [ 109 In 1998 European Cyclists’ (ECF) adopted position paper compulsory helmet as being to have negative rather positive health [ 108 The UK’s cyclists’ organisation, CTC. believes the ” health effects compulsory helmets negative. ” 110 ] Dutch Fietsersbond Union) summarized evidence and that a helmet law utility cyclists) have a impact on health: ” laws save few brains, destroy a of hearts No policy was provided other types cycling, particular biking (MTB) all forms on- and cycle sports. 111 ] March 2013, Wardlaw was by the saying that compulsion “should challenged. It’s out the message about being dangerous. as pernicious saying smoking safe.” [ ] Legislation culture. The countries have helmet laws. at least jurisdiction, for minors only, for all Australia, Canada, Republic, Finland, New Zealand, and the States. Spain helmets on routes. [ ] In U.S.

21 states state-wide mandatory laws for of varying and 37 have mandatory laws for age groups varying jurisdictions. 113 ] 9 in American adults helmet laws children. [ ] Israel’s law was enforced or and the element has revoked; Mexico has repealed helmet law. 115 ] 2004, a proposing to the wearing bicycle helmets came before UK Parliament, was defeated. observed: ” 2004 Parliamentary was unanimously by the establishment, with major cycling and magazine helmet compulsion. [ 116 Although the is not it is that the with the cycle safety (Denmark and Netherlands ) among the levels of use. [ needed ]. 117 ] bicycle safety is generally to public and understanding cyclists, safety numbers. education, cycling infrastructure. study of in major of Boston, and Amsterdam the variation cycling culture: had far rates of (32% of versus 2.4% Paris and in Amsterdam), had far cyclists (242 bicycles per versus 74 Paris and in Boston). 118 ] helmet wearing in the and Denmark very low. 105 ] 119 ] 120 ] Australian journalist “Rarities in seem to stretch-fabric-clad cyclists fat cyclists. are non-existent, when people me where was from, would grimace mutter: “Ah, helmet laws.” had gained notoriety on par with deadly sea Despite the of helmets, in the is safer in any country, and Dutch have the number cycling fatalities 100,000 people) Australia has.” 121 ] UK’s CTC that cycling the Netherlands Denmark is as a activity requiring special clothing equipment. [ ] Pucher Buehler state: Dutch cycling and planners for this adamantly opposed use of claiming that discourage cycling making it convenient, less and less

They also the possibility helmets would cycling more by giving a false of safety thus encouraging riding behavior.” 123 ] ^ Additional, calculation errors been found both the Elvik meta-analysis and its [ 39 These errors awaiting confirmation Elvik and researchers. ^ also slides in [ ] for analysis by of the from the study.

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