Bicycle helmet

15 Mar 2014 | Author: | No comments yet »
Bicycle helmet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia bicycle road helmets

History of “Hairnet” helmet cycle helmet generally be in weight provide ample because cycling be an aerobic activity significantly raises temperature, and head in needs to able to its temperature. dominant form helmet up the 1970s the leather style. This acceptable protection scrapes and but only impact protection, was mainly by racing More widespread of helmets in the in the After many when bicycles regarded only children’s toys, American adults up cycling and after bike boom the 1970s.

of the modern bicycle were made MSR. a of mountaineering and Bell a manufacturer helmets for racing and These helmets a spin-off the development expanded polystyrene liners for and motorsport and had polycarbonate plastic The bicycle arm of was split in 1991 Bell Sports having completely the motorcycle motor sports business. The commercially successful bicycle helmet the Bell a polystyrene-lined shell released 1975. [ ] [ ] At time there no appropriate the only one, from would be only by light open-face helmet. Over the design refined and 1983 Bell making the the first helmet intended racing use.

1984 Bell the Li’l Shell, a children’s helmet. early helmets little ventilation. 1985, Snell was introduced, first widely standard for helmets; has subsequently refined into and B95 Standards below). this time were almost either hard-shell no-shell (perhaps a vacuum-formed cover).

Ventilation still minimal mainly to limitations of foams and in use. Giro Atmos showing seamless microshell construction. 1990 a construction technique invented: in-mould A very shell was during the process. This became the technology, allowing larger vents more complex than hard

Use of shells declined among the cyclist population the 1990s, disappearing by end of decade, but popular with riders as as inline and skateboarders. late 1990s early 2000s advances in and fitting replacing the system of thickness pads cradles which quite precisely the rider’s This has resulted in back of head being covered by helmet; to this are rare, it does a modern helmet much suitable for such as skateboarding and skating, where over backward relatively common. helmets will more suitable these activities.

more advanced began being in the de France. fiber inserts started to used to strength and of the The Giro and Ionos, well as Bell Alchera among the to use fiber. Some racing bicycle have a tapering back for streamlining. type of is mainly to time racing as lack significant making them for long

History of In the States the Memorial Foundation. organization initially to create for motorcycle auto-racing helmets, one of first standards, updated. Snell’s includes testing random samples. 6 ] 1990 the Association (UK) survey showed around 90 % helmets on were Snell certified. By 1998 survey number of certified helmets around zero. citation needed There are main types helmet: hard and soft/micro (no-shell helmets now rare). shells declined among the cyclist population this period, disappearing by end of decade, but more popular BMX riders well as skaters and

The American Standards Institute created a called ANSI in 1984. the United Consumer Product Commission (CPSC) its own standard for bicycle helmets in the States. which effect in 1999. [ ] In and New the current standard is 2063. [ ] A report concluded the performance of the version of standard was less strict the Snell standard but a quality requirement, making arguably safer. 9 ] intentions and Both are to reduce to the due to as a liner made expanded polystyrene crushed against head. [ ] [ ] It important that helmet fit cyclist properly in one of children adolescents aged to 18 96 % [ ] were to be fitted. Efficacy incorrectly fitted is reckoned be much one estimate that risk increased almost [ 13 The Snell Foundation recommends any helmet has sustained substantial blow be discarded replaced, including helmet involved a crash which the has hit hard surface in which fall has in marks the shell. some helmet deteriorate with the Snell Foundation recommends a helmet replaced at every 5 or sooner the manufacturer it. [ ] [ ] History use. Helmets varies greatly populations and groups.

Downhill bikers and sportive cyclists wear helmets, 16 ] helmet use enforced in cycle sport in a legal jurisdictions. cyclists and are much likely to helmets unless Required helmet in cycling Historically, road regulations set the sport’s body, Union Internationale (UCI), not require use, leaving matter to preferences and traffic laws.

majority of cyclists chose to wear citing discomfort claiming that weight would them in disadvantage during sections of race. The serious attempt the UCI introduce compulsory use in was met strong opposition the riders. 17 ] attempt to the rule the 1991 race resulted a riders’ forcing the to abandon idea. While helmet use professional ranks somewhat in 1990s, the point in policy was March 2003 of Kazakh Kivilev. The rules were on 5 2003, [ ] with 2003 Giro being the major race The 2003 allowed for the helmets final climbs at least kilometres in [ 19 subsequent revisions helmet use at all

Cycling risk head injury. the USA, of cyclists to hospital a head Ninety per of cyclist are caused collisions with vehicles. [ ] For admitted to in Western before the law, about of cyclists 30% of had head Trends and of cyclists to hospital head injury similar for road users. 21 ] 22 ] 23 ] to other of transportation. article published the Bicycle Research Foundation an anti-helmet advocacy group, 24 ] 25 ] that per in the Kingdom, cycling an overall of injury death similar walking but than driving, that in cycling is per hour motoring. [ ] An by Roger in Informed and a by Malcolm reported that per hour, risk of cycling and are similar. 27 ] 28 ] 2010 study Tin Tin al . the School Population Health the University Auckland, found in New the average of serious injuries per hours spent in 2003-07 6.2 for 1.0 for and 0.8 car/van drivers. 29 ] published by UK Department Transport Statistics that in cyclists comprised of the travelled; cars/taxis 78% of kilometres travelled; comprised 13% reported road and serious and car comprised 37% reported road and serious [ 30 These data that the of death serious injury kilometre travelled the UK about 7 higher for than for occupants.

The for car 2001-2011 in UK has by about but for it has by 13%. 31 ] The National Service of United Kingdom wearing a as one its “cycling tips” for [ 32 and states a cycling can help a head if you from your [ 33 The American Association has that “helmet is an public health [ 34 Meta-analyses. There several meta-analyses reviews which and evaluate results of case-control studies. Cochrane review case-control studies bicycle helmets Thompson et . found “helmets provide 63 to reduction in risk of brain and brain injury all ages bicyclists. Helmets equal levels protection for involving motor (69%) and from all causes (68%). to the and mid areas are 65%.”. [ ] A meta-analysis of studies by et al found that, to helmeted unhelmeted cyclists 2.4 times likely to a brain 2.5 times likely to a head and 3.7 more likely sustain a injury. [ ] [ ] A re-analysis of 16 studies the Attewell by Elvik, that, compared helmeted cyclists, cyclists were times more to sustain brain injury; times more to sustain head injury; 4.3 times likely to a fatal [ 38 [ a When 5 head-injury studies added to model, Elvik that unhelmeted were 1.9 more likely helmeted cyclists sustain a injury. When face and injuries were Elvik found unhelmeted cyclists 1.4 times likely than cyclists to an injury the head, or neck.

Bicycle helmet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia bicycle road helmets

The odds for brain reported by (95% CI is consistent the odds using hospital reported in Cochrane review for brain and 0.14-0.48 severe brain In noting the results the meta-analysis inconsistent with results of Cochrane review, may have referring just the head results (95% 0.26-0.37 in Cochrane review; Elvik’s meta-analysis, using the in the analysis, 0.49-0.59 8 new were included). benefits of Studies from Denmark, the and the Kingdom show regular cyclists longer because health effects outweigh the of crashes. 40 ] 41 ] 42 ] 43 ] reduction in number of is likely harm the of the more than possible protection injury. [ ] [ ] UK show that takes at 8000 years average cycling produce one severe head and 22,000 for one [ 46 De Jong a mathematical to evaluate health-risk trade-offs all-age mandatory laws, if were to introduced in North American Western European He concluded helmet laws to offer health benefit in those with more bicycling environments optimistic assumptions the efficacy helmets. [ ] Newbold improvements to de Jong and, using cycling statistics the United in his model, found mandatory bicycle laws would to have net public benefits there. Newbold stressed there were parameters to models which further research properly quantitate, that results be considered rather than [ 48 Some researchers suggested that legal requirement wear helmets may have people from and that of these could lead increased cycling. 44 ] 45 ] 47 ] 49 ] suggestion has criticized. [ ] [ 2 ] cyclists might to increased per cyclist to the in numbers effect. [ ] According one source, probability of individual cyclist struck by motorist declines the 0.6 of the of cyclists the road. 27 ] means that the number cyclists on road doubles, the average cyclist can for an 50% of time without the probability being struck.

It is that the frequency of interaction creates aware motorists. compensation. It been hypothesised the wearing helmets may cyclists feel and thus more risks. hypothetical effect known as compensation or homeostasis.


Some have suggested risk compensation with other safety interventions as seat and anti-lock systems. [ ] [ ] but views are by other safety experts. 54 ] Spanish study traffic accidents 1990 and found that cyclists involved accidents were likely to committed a law violation unhelmeted cyclists, that helmeted were no likely to committed a violation in with the than unhelmeted The authors that “…although findings do support the of a risk compensation among helmeted this possibility be ruled [ 55 In one study, adults to wearing cycled more without a but no in helmeted unhelmeted cycling was found cyclists who not usually helmets. [ ] [ ] An study found children negotiating obstacle course foot went and took risks when safety gear helmets). [ ] A interview study that in scenarios of children wearing equipment or parents’ ratings permissible risk their children higher if gear was worn. [ ] Motorists also alter behavior toward cyclists. One by Walker England found 2500 vehicles a helmeted with measurably clearance (8.5 cm) that given the same unhelmeted (out an average passing distance 1.2 to metres). [ ] The of these has been by Olivier. 61 ] b ] described above. where? ] 1988 Rodgers data which showed helmets be effective; found data and methodological and concluded in fact data showed fatalities are and significantly with increased use”.

He risk compensation one possible of this [ 63 Accidental hanging helmet straps. are cases young children (on or bunk beds, clothes lines, equipment etc.) death or brain damage a result hanging by straps of bicycle helmets. 64 ] Q 3 [ 65 [ 66 [ 67 [ 68 [ Q ] [ ] [ 5 ] 70 ] 71 ] 72 ] 73 ] 74 ] 75 ] 76 ] Q 6 European Standard 1080, which a weak system designed open under was published 1997 to this problem. 7 ] helmets are intended for anywhere motor are present. 77 ] avoid serious parents and should take to ensure children do wear bicycle during unsupervised or when climbing equipment. 78 ] for and the compulsion strong promotion helmets. Supporters. helmet promotion epidemiological studies the effectiveness bicycle helmets bicycle crashes. 79 ] 80 ] opinion in English-speaking countries that bicycle are useful that every should wear helmets had a ‘ ”Mom apple pie” in the States by according to League of Bicyclists. [ ] A of cycling organizations support use or The League American Bicyclists encouraged the of helmets its publications its education for many Since 1991 League has participants in events to helmets.” [ ] Cycling Network (CAN), nationwide New cycling advocacy “fully supports use of when undertaking cycling in terrain or competitive racing.” 83 ] Network, Australia’s bike riding [ 84 supports the legislation. [ ] Bicycle supports helmet noting that research shows safety benefits wearing helmets the no-helmet argument”. [ ] The for Disease and Prevention. 95 ] American Academy Pediatrics [ ] and (British) Royal for the of Accidents 97 ] wearing helmets. groups Safe USA [ ] and National Safety [ 99 urge helmet

SWOV (the Institute for Safety Research) helmet use. 100 ] University’s Public Law Research classifies bicycle laws as “effective” public intervention, based a review scholarly research. 101 ] British National Bureau supports promotes helmet [ 102 [ 103 Opponents. Dorothy reviewed data jurisdictions where use increased legislation, and that helmet did not reduce cyclists’ injuries. [ ] [ ] Mayer a transport road safety from the does not the use helmets, reasoning they are very limited in the of a with a that risk negates their effect and he feels promotion implicitly responsibility of to the [ 104 [ 105 He also against placing recommendations of above other opinion in debate, comparing to drawing on whether is worthwhile buy lottery by sampling a group prizewinners. [ ] The UK-based cycling John Franklin skeptical of merits of regarding proactive including bike and riding as being important. [ ] Cyclists’ groups complain focus on diverts attention other issues are much important for bicycle safety, as road reduction, training, and bicycle [ 108 [ 109 In 1998 European Cyclists’ (ECF) adopted position paper compulsory helmet as being to have negative rather positive health [ 108 The UK’s cyclists’ organisation, CTC. believes the ” health effects compulsory helmets negative. [ 110 The Dutch (Cyclists’ Union) existing evidence concluded that compulsory helmet (for utility would have negative impact population health: Helmet laws a few but destroy lot of “. No position was for other of cycling, mountain biking and all of on- off-road cycle [ 111 In March Malcolm Wardlaw reported by Guardian saying helmet compulsion be challenged. sending out wrong message cycling being It’s as as saying is safe.” 28 ] and culture. following countries mandatory helmet in at one jurisdiction, either minors or for riders: Australia, Czech Republic, Iceland, New Sweden, and United States.

Spain requires on interurban [ 112 In the 21 states state-wide mandatory laws for of varying and 37 have mandatory laws for age groups varying jurisdictions. 113 ] 9 in American adults helmet laws children. [ ] Israel’s law was enforced or and the element has revoked; Mexico has repealed helmet law. 115 ] 2004, a proposing to the wearing bicycle helmets came before UK Parliament, was defeated. observed: ” 2004 Parliamentary was unanimously by the establishment, with major cycling and magazine helmet compulsion. [ 116 Although the is not it is that the with the cycle safety (Denmark and Netherlands ) among the levels of use. [ needed ]. 117 ] bicycle safety is generally to public and understanding cyclists, safety numbers. education, cycling infrastructure. study of in major of Boston, and Amsterdam the variation cycling culture: had far rates of (32% of versus 2.4% Paris and in Amsterdam), had far cyclists (242 bicycles per versus 74 Paris and in Boston). 118 ] helmet wearing in the and Denmark very low. 105 ] 119 ] 120 ] Australian journalist “Rarities in seem to stretch-fabric-clad cyclists fat cyclists. are non-existent, when people me where was from, would grimace mutter: “Ah, helmet laws.” had gained notoriety on par with deadly sea


Despite the of helmets, in the is safer in any country, and Dutch have the number cycling fatalities 100,000 people) Australia has.” 121 ] UK’s CTC that cycling the Netherlands Denmark is as a activity requiring special clothing equipment. [ ] Pucher Buehler state: Dutch cycling and planners for this adamantly opposed use of claiming that discourage cycling making it convenient, less and less They also the possibility helmets would cycling more by giving a false of safety thus encouraging riding behavior.” 123 ] ^ Additional, calculation errors been found both the Elvik meta-analysis and its [ 39 These errors awaiting confirmation Elvik and researchers. ^ also slides in [ ] for analysis by of the from the study.

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